Online searches offer campaigns the simplest form of targeted advertising. When a voter searches on a candidate's name or a keyword that indicates interest in that candidate, campaigns will place ads next to the search.
The ads offer a great return on investment because the campaign only has to pay for the ad if the voter actually clicks on it. By layering additional data about the person who clicked on the ad, such as their gender or geographic location, the campaign can tailor a very specific message to get that person's attention.
The campaigns also use microtargeting to determine the placement of display ads, the small boxes that appear on websites and follow users around as they browse the Internet.
The campaigns might choose specific sites that are likely to attract voters sympathetic to their candidate. The Romney team might place a display ad on a conservative news website, while Obama might do so on a site popular with college students.
Retargeting, or reaching out to someone who has indicated an interest in a candidate online but has not yet taken an action, is another way campaigns use display ads to reach potential supporters. People who have visited a candidate's website but left the site without signing up or making a contribution might start seeing display ads from the campaign urging them to do so.
The video-sharing site YouTube has become a popular site for campaign advertising as more people migrate from watching live television to viewing shows and other videos online.
A voter who has indicated an interest in a candidate and then views a video on YouTube is likely to see a 15- or 30-second campaign ad, called a pre-roll, pop up. A box will appear after 5 seconds asking if the person wants to continue viewing the ad. Campaigns only pay for ads the viewer watches through to completion.